proxy_pass反向代理配置中url后面加不加/的说明

2019-03-13 小惟 19

在日常的web网站部署中,经常会用到nginx的proxy_pass反向代理,有一个配置需要弄清楚:配置proxy_pass时,当在后面的url加上了/,相当于是绝对根路径,则nginx不会把location中匹配的路径部分代理走;如果没有/,则会把匹配的路径部分也给代理走

下面举个小实例说明下:
centos7系统库中默认是没有nginx的rpm包的,所以我们自己需要先更新下rpm依赖库

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1)使用yum安装nginx需要包括Nginx的库,安装Nginx的库
[root@localhost ~]# rpm -Uvh http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/noarch/RPMS/nginx-release-centos-7-0.el7.ngx.noarch.rpm
  
2)使用下面命令安装nginx
[root@localhost ~]# yum install nginx
  
3)nginx配置
[root@localhost ~]# cd /etc/nginx/conf.d/
[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
}
 
[root@localhost conf.d]# cat /var/www/html/index.html
this is page of test!!!!
  
4)启动Nginx
[root@localhost ~]# service nginx start     //或者使用 systemctl start nginx.service
  
5)测试访问(103.110.186.23是192.168.1.23机器的外网ip)
[root@localhost conf.d]# curl http://192.168.1.23
this is page of test!!!!

--------------------------看看下面几种情况:分别用http://192.168.1.23/proxy/index.html进行访问测试-----------------

为了方便测试,先在另一台机器192.168.1.5上部署一个8090端口的nginx,配置如下:

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[root@bastion-IDC ~]# cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts/haha.conf
server {
listen 8090;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
}
[root@bastion-IDC ~]# cat /var/www/html/index.html
this is 192.168.1.5
[root@bastion-IDC ~]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload
 
测试访问(103.110.186.5是192.168.1.5的外网ip):
[root@bastion-IDC ~]# curl http://192.168.1.5:8090
this is 192.168.1.5

192.168.1.23作为nginx反向代理机器,nginx配置如下:
1)第一种情况:

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[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
 
location  /proxy/ {
          proxy_pass http://192.168.1.5:8090/;
}
}

这样,访问http://192.168.1.23/proxy/就会被代理到http://192.168.1.5:8090/。p匹配的proxy目录不需要存在根目录/var/www/html里面
注意,终端里如果访问http://192.168.1.23/proxy(即后面不带"/"),则会访问失败!因为proxy_pass配置的url后面加了"/"

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[root@localhost conf.d]# curl http://192.168.1.23/proxy/
this is 192.168.1.5
[root@localhost conf.d]# curl http://192.168.1.23/proxy
<head>301 Moved Permanently</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">

301 Moved Permanently<

/h1></center>

nginx
/1.10.3</center>
</body>
</html>

页面访问http://103.110.186.23/proxy的时候,会自动加上"/”(同理是由于proxy_pass配置的url后面加了"/"),并反代到http://103.110.186.5:8090的结果

2)第二种情况,proxy_pass配置的url后面不加"/"

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[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
 
location  /proxy/ {
          proxy_pass http://192.168.1.5:8090;
}
}
[root@localhost conf.d]# service nginx restart
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart  nginx.service
 
那么访问http://192.168.1.23/proxy或http://192.168.1.23/proxy/,都会失败!
这样配置后,访问http://192.168.1.23/proxy/就会被反向代理到http://192.168.1.5:8090/proxy/

3)第三种情况

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[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
 
location  /proxy/ {
          proxy_pass http://192.168.1.5:8090/haha/;
}
}
[root@localhost conf.d]# service nginx restart
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart  nginx.service
[root@localhost conf.d]# curl http://192.168.1.23/proxy/
192.168.1.5  haha-index.html

这样配置的话,访问http://103.110.186.23/proxy代理到http://192.168.1.5:8090/haha/

4)第四种情况:相对于第三种配置的url不加"/"

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[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
 
location  /proxy/ {
          proxy_pass http://192.168.1.5:8090/haha;
}
}
[root@localhost conf.d]# service nginx restart
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart  nginx.service
[root@localhost conf.d]# curl http://192.168.1.23/proxy/index.html
192.168.1.5   hahaindex.html
 
上面配置后,访问http://192.168.1.23/proxy/index.html就会被代理到http://192.168.1.5:8090/hahaindex.html
同理,访问http://192.168.1.23/proxy/test.html就会被代理到http://192.168.1.5:8090/hahatest.html
[root@localhost conf.d]# curl http://192.168.1.23/proxy/index.html
192.168.1.5   hahaindex.html
 
注意,这种情况下,不能直接访问http://192.168.1.23/proxy/,后面就算是默认的index.html文件也要跟上,否则访问失败!

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
上面四种方式都是匹配的path路径后面加"/",下面说下path路径后面不带"/"的情况:

1)第一种情况,proxy_pass后面url带"/":

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[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
  
location  /proxy {
          proxy_pass http://192.168.1.5:8090/;
}
}
[root@localhost conf.d]# service nginx restart
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart  nginx.service

2)第二种情况,proxy_pass后面url不带"/"

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[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
  
location  /proxy {
          proxy_pass http://192.168.1.5:8090;
}
}
[root@localhost conf.d]# service nginx restart
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart  nginx.service
[root@localhost conf.d]#

这样配置的话,访问http://103.110.186.23/proxy会自动加上"/”(即变成http://103.110.186.23/proxy/),代理到192.168.1.5:8090/proxy/

3)第三种情况

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[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
  
location  /proxy {
          proxy_pass http://192.168.1.5:8090/haha/;
}
}
[root@localhost conf.d]# service nginx restart
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart  nginx.service

这样配置的话,访问http://103.110.186.23/proxy会自动加上"/”(即变成http://103.110.186.23/proxy/),代理到http://192.168.1.5:8090/haha/

4)第四种情况:相对于第三种配置的url不加"/"

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[root@localhost conf.d]# cat test.conf
server {
listen 80;
server_name localhost;
location / {
root /var/www/html;
index index.html;
}
  
location  /proxy {
          proxy_pass http://192.168.1.5:8090/haha;
}
}
[root@localhost conf.d]# service nginx restart
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart  nginx.service

这样配置的话,访问http://103.110.186.23/proxy,和第三种结果一样,同样被代理到http://192.168.1.5:8090/haha/

===================================如下一简单配置示例=============================

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只有当访问http://www.kevin.com/los/.....的时候才代理负载到http://192.168.10.24:50006/los/.... 和 http://192.168.10.25:50006/los/....上,
也就是说访问www.kevin.com域名, 只有在后面匹配los路径时才代理负载到192.168.10.24/25的50006端口的los路径下, 除此之外, 访问域名
www.kevin.com 匹配其他任何路径(包括/, 即http://www.kevin.com) 时都跳转到一个错误页面:
 
[root@external-lb02 vhosts]# cat 80-www.kevin.com.conf
 upstream web-inf-80 {
      ip_hash;
      server 192.168.10.24:50006  max_fails=3 fail_timeout=15s;
      server 192.168.10.25:50006  max_fails=3 fail_timeout=15s;
}
           
  server {
      listen      80;
      server_name www.kevin.com;
 
      access_log  /data/nginx/logs/www.kevin.com-access.log main;
      error_log  /data/nginx/logs/www.kevin.com-error.log;
 
  location / {
        root /opt/web-inf;
        index index.php index.html index.htm;
        }
 
   error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
      location = /50x.html {
            root   /opt/web-inf;
        }
          
     error_page   404  /404.html;
     location = /404.html {
            root   /opt/web-inf;
        }
     
 location /los/ {
         proxy_pass http://web-inf-80;
         proxy_set_header Host $host;
         #proxy_redirect  http://web-inf/ http://www.kevin.com/;
         proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
         proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
         proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_502 http_503 http_504;
        }
}
 
错误页面设置:
[root@external-lb02 vhosts]# cd /opt/web-inf/
[root@external-lb02 web-inf]# ls
404.html  50x.html  error.html  index.html
[root@external-lb02 web-inf]# cat error.html
this is error page!
[root@external-lb02 web-inf]# cat index.html
this is error page!
[root@external-lb02 web-inf]# cat 404.html
this is error page!
[root@external-lb02 web-inf]# cat 50x.html
this is error page!
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